In the early car crash test, the staff would personally participate in the test, but because the risk factor was too high, considering the life safety of the tester, later they used chimpanzees and other animals to replace humans for the crash test, but they were met by the Animal Protection Association and the Animal Protection Association. People objected, and later this arduous task was replaced by a dummy. It is worth mentioning that the key to the collision test is to collect data, not just the car system, but also the impact of the collision on the human body in the car. Through the car crash test, the force that the driver and occupant experience in a collision in a controlled and unmeasurable environment is studied, and these data must be provided by the dummy.
In 1949, the Sierra Company of the United States developed the world's first dummy named SierraSam, which was a 95th percentile adult male dummy. The U.S. Air Force used it to do rocket seat ejection tests. It was mainly used for testing. The driver’s thigh and shoulder injuries. This dummy has good tolerance and applicability, but its reusability is poor. Moreover, it is only somewhat similar to humans in terms of appearance, weight, and movement of important joints, and there are big differences in other aspects.
In 1966, the American ARL company developed the VIP series dummy, which is mainly used to test the pilot escape system of the aircraft, and it is also more suitable for the requirements of the automotive field. Since then, automobile companies such as GM and Ford have supported the development of car crash dummy.
In 1971, ARL and Sierra developed the Hybrid I standard dummy. In the same year, with the support of American auto giants, First Safety Systems Technology Company (FTSS: FirstTechnologySafetySystems) produced the Hybrid II dummy, and the U.S. government decided to use it as a standard dummy for automobile crash tests.
In 1997, First Safety System Technology Corporation successfully developed the HybridIII series of dummy, which is currently the most widely used dummy family in the world.
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