Sweating Manikin is an apparatus and equipment that simulates the heat exchange process between the human body and the environment. Sweating Manikin is generally divided into head, chest, back, upper limbs, hands, abdomen, legs and feet according to the heat dissipation characteristics of various parts of the human body.Sweating Manikin is a new biophysical test method that was gradually developed from the 1940s and is widely used in the fields of clothing, occupational health, environment, firefighting, petroleum, transportation safety, aerospace, construction, etc. Common types of Sweating Manikin include Common types of Sweating Manikin include
In recent years, domestic and foreign scholars have developed warming prosthetic head, prosthetic hand, prosthetic foot, etc., mainly for helmet or headgear, gloves, shoes evaluation and guidance product development. The warm body prosthesis head consists of head, face and neck, and the three parts are heated separately and controlled independently. In order to simulate sweating, the prosthetic head includes 25 sweating holes distributed on the face and head, distilled water located in the water tank above the prosthetic head is fed into the prosthetic head through a pipe, and the sweating volume is controlled by a separate valve up to 70 g/h. The prosthetic head can work in constant temperature and constant heat mode, and the test results indicate the thermal comfort performance of the helmet by the degree of temperature drop on the face. The warm prosthetic hand consists of eight blocks, namely thumb, index finger, middle finger, ring finger, little finger, palm, back of hand and wrist. The heat supply of each block is controlled by computer. The warm body prosthetic hand is placed inside a small box, and the wrist is exposed outside. In real life, the hand is always moving, especially outdoors, so a certain airflow is introduced inside the box, and finally the heat transfer coefficient and local heat transfer coefficient of the glove are used to express the thermal insulation performance of the glove. The heat transfer coefficient is lower in the palm and back of the hand, followed by the index finger, middle finger and ring finger, and highest in the thumb and pinky finger. The heated prosthetic foot consists of eight pieces, namely the toes, sole, heel, mid-foot, ankle, lower calf, mid-calf, and protective segment. To simulate sweating, the prosthetic foot includes five sweat glands, located in the toes, sole, ankle, instep, and lateral ankle. A cotton sock was placed on the dummy foot in order to allow water distribution to the whole foot. The evaluation indexes are thermal resistance, moisture resistance and moisture permeability index. If connected to the pneumatic piston, it can also imitate human walking.
Dry Sweating Manikin can work in three ways: constant temperature method, variable temperature method and constant heat method. The constant temperature method is to control the body surface temperature of each anatomical section of Sweating Manikin within a set range, so that Sweating Manikin enters a dynamic thermal equilibrium state in order to obtain stable experimental results, the method is used to measure the thermal resistance of the garment; variable temperature method is based on the thermal regulation model of the human body in a cold environment, simulating the change in body surface temperature of real people in different environments , the body surface temperature at steady state is not a set value, but the result of natural equilibrium with the real person, the same can be obtained with the thermostatic method of measuring the very similar thermal resistance of clothing, variable temperature method has a physiological evaluation of the significance of approximating the real person ; constant heat method is based on the thermal resistance of clothing and environmental parameters, with a set value of heat flow to observe the differences in heat dissipation in various parts of the body, when the body surface temperature gradually decreases until stable. Including static Sweating Manikin and dynamic Sweating Manikin.
As the dry Sweating Manikin can only simulate the physiological response of the human body in the range of non-evaporative heat dissipation, people have developed Sweating Manikin. early Sweating Manikin is covered with a layer of cotton fabric or other moisture permeable underwear to simulate human skin on the surface of the dummy, first distilled water is sprayed onto the simulated skin. Then put on the clothes, so that the average body surface temperature of the dummy rose to a certain level, the control system every 5 minutes on the dummy body surface temperature, environmental parameters and heating power recorded once, and calculate the evaporation resistance of the clothing, before the simulated skin began to dry to complete the test. Because this process is a quasi-steady-state process, usually very short time, mainly relying on the operator's subjective judgment of which relatively stable evaporation resistance value as the test results, so this method can not be very accurate, repeatable measurement of the evaporation resistance of the garment.
Breathable Sweating Manikin is mainly used in the study of indoor work environment and indoor air quality assessment [34~36]. Breathing Sweating Manikin has the same body size as an ordinary person and consists of 25 heating zones, each zone is heated separately and controlled independently, the dummy can change its posture and move freely to imitate the real situation of the human body in various offices, Sweating Manikin adopts a tight dressing style because the clothes can reduce the thermal radiation between the zones and the heat transfer coefficient during correction In addition, the clothing reduces the thickness of the air layer between the clothing and the dummy surface to minimize measurement uncertainty. Breathing Sweating Manikin can work in three ways: ① comfort mode, which simulates the dry state heat dissipation and body surface temperature of an ordinary person who stays comfortable in a hot environment; ② constant temperature mode, where the body surface temperature of the dummy is 34°C; ③ constant heat mode, which is used for the evaluation of the indoor temperature above
34℃ when the thermal environment is evaluated. The comfort mode can represent the actual temperature distribution of the human body and is widely used. BreathingSweating Manikin has an artificial lung, consisting of a cylinder equipped with a piston, the piston is driven by an electric motor, the number of breaths is 10 to 12 times / min, breathing can be oral or nose breathing, lung ventilation capacity of 6 liters / min, the size and shape of the mouth or nose has an impact on the test results, the test, collect the air exhaled at 0.01m from the upper lip or near the face The test is conducted to study the transfer of pollutants between bodies by accurately measuring their concentration, temperature and humidity. The same test Sweating Manikin exhaled air of the above parameters can be evaluated indoor air quality.
Submersible Sweating Manikin is based on Sweating Manikin, plus a waterproof sealing device, so that the dummy has a waterproof function. Mainly used to test the protection function of diving suits, water life jackets in the cold environment. Test, the dressed dummy immersed in water, keep the water temperature constant, record the dummy skin surface temperature, ambient temperature and the heating power of each zone, calculate the total thermal resistance value of the diving suit, when the total thermal resistance value including underwear, diving suit, water and air thermal resistance. The experiments proved that the total thermal resistance of the wetsuit obtained by the immersion Sweating Manikin matches the total thermal resistance value measured with a real person, turbulence will greatly reduce the total thermal resistance of the wetsuit, and the height of the water waves can also reduce the total thermal resistance of the wetsuit. The thermal resistance values measured by submerging Sweating Manikin can also be used to predict the endurance time of a suit in a given environment.
Sweating Manikin due to the complex manufacturing process, and expensive, dummy experimental conditions such as the high cost of artificial climate chamber, only a few laboratories in the world have. Ergonomics research using "virtual" dummies on a computer can save a lot of money. Recently, due to the rapid development of computer computing speed, computational fluid dynamics (ComputationalFluidDynamics, CFD) technology has been increasingly used in various industries, the use of computer technology to simulate the human body has also become possible. In contrast to the traditional Sweating Manikin, this computer simulation of the dummy is called numerical Sweating Manikin, where the simulation of heat and mass transfer around the dummy is achieved by solving a series of partial differential equations. If specific environmental parameters and thermal properties of the clothing are input, the numerical Sweating Manikin can calculate all the heat dissipation of the human body such as conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation, and predict the local temperature and heat transfer coefficient of the human body, as well as the sweat distribution of each part, so as to evaluate the thermal comfort and air quality of a certain environment.
Small Sweating Manikin is mainly used to evaluate the thermal environment of newborns, especially low weight infants. It generally consists of six heating zones, namely head, left upper limb, right upper limb, trunk, left lower limb and right lower limb, each zone is heated separately and controlled independently. To simulate the actual situation, the Small Sweating Manikin lies flat in the incubator and is tested in the same way as the Large Sweating Manikin. Because the weight of the baby is larger than the proportion of body surface area than the adult, so the dry state heat dissipation of the small Sweating Manikin is larger than that of the large Sweating Manikin, and its evaluation index thermal resistance is not much different compared with the large Sweating Manikin.
Walter Sweating Fabric Manikin (Walter Sweating Fabric Mannequin) is a new generation of smart sweating fabric manikin developed by Qinsun and famous professors from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. It is a Simulation of perspiration in sweating fabric manikin an important tool for objectively and accurately evaluating thermal comfort or pressure.