UL 94 is a standard published by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) that is widely used to evaluate the flammability of plastic materials. The standard assigns different ratings to indicate the material's ability to self-extinguish or resist burning. Here are the different ratings used in UL 94:
1. V-0: V-0 is the highest rating in the UL 94 standard. A material classified as V-0 is considered to have excellent flame retardancy. To achieve a V-0 rating, the material must self-extinguish within 10 seconds of being exposed to a vertical flame. It should not have any flaming drips or particles that ignite cotton.
1. V-1: V-1 is the second-highest rating. A material with a V-1 rating has a good level of flame retardancy but is not as stringent as V-0. To achieve a V-1 rating, the material must self-extinguish within 30 seconds of being exposed to a vertical flame. It should not have any flaming drips, although it may have some glowing drips that do not ignite cotton.
1. V-2: V-2 is a lower rating than V-1. A material classified as V-2 has moderate flame retardancy. To achieve a V-2 rating, the material must self-extinguish within 30 seconds of being exposed to a vertical flame. It may have flaming drips or some glowing drips, but they should not ignite cotton.
1. HB: HB stands for "Horizontal Burning." It is the lowest rating in the UL 94 standard and indicates less flame retardancy compared to the V-rated materials. A material with an HB rating is considered to have a limited ability to resist burning. It may burn continuously when subjected to a horizontal flame, and it can have flaming drips and ignite cotton.
It's important to note that the UL 94 standard is primarily applicable to thin plastic materials, such as films, sheets, and laminates. Thicker materials or parts may require additional testing methods and standards to assess their flammability.
When evaluating plastic materials for flammability, it is advisable to consult the specific requirements and regulations of the intended industry and region, as different applications may have additional or alternative standards to adhere to beyond the UL 94 rating system.