An abrasion resistance test fabric is a specially designed material used to assess the ability of other fabrics to withstand abrasive forces. It is used as a standardized reference material in various industries, including textile, automotive, furniture, and protective clothing. The test fabric is subjected to controlled abrasion under specific conditions to evaluate the durability and wear resistance of other fabrics.
There are different types of abrasion resistance test fabrics available, and their selection depends on the specific testing requirements and industry standards. Test fabrics can vary in terms of material composition, construction, weight, and surface characteristics. Commonly used test fabrics include cotton duck fabric, wool fabric, and synthetic fabric blends.
Here are some key aspects related to abrasion resistance test fabrics:
1. Material Composition:
- Cotton Duck Fabric: Cotton duck fabric is a tightly woven, durable material commonly used as an abrasive reference fabric. It consists of 100% cotton or cotton-polyester blend yarns. Cotton duck fabric is known for its strength and resistance to tearing.
- Wool Fabric: Wool fabric is also used as an abrasion resistance test fabric. It is known for its natural resilience and ability to withstand friction and wear. Wool fabrics are often used in applications where abrasion resistance is critical, such as military and protective clothing.
- Synthetic Fabric Blends: Synthetic fabric blends, such as polyester-cotton or nylon-cotton blends, are frequently used as test fabrics due to their durability, strength, and ability to withstand abrasion. These fabrics offer good resistance to pilling, tearing, and abrasion.
- Twill Weave: Many abrasion resistance test fabrics are constructed using a twill weave. The twill weave provides a strong and stable fabric structure, enhancing resistance to wear and tear. The diagonal lines formed by the twill weave help to prevent snagging and unraveling of the fabric.
- Test fabrics come in different weights (measured in ounces per square yard or grams per square meter). The weight can affect the test results, as heavier fabrics tend to have higher abrasion resistance. Typically, the weight of the test fabric is determined based on industry standards or specific testing requirements.
4. Surface Characteristics:
- The surface of the test fabric may have specific finishes or coatings, such as water repellency, flame resistance, or anti-static properties. These finishes can affect the fabric's performance during the abrasion resistance test and provide insights into how different coatings contribute to abrasion resistance.
5. Testing Standards:
- Abrasion resistance tests are conducted following specific standards, such as ASTM D3884 (Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics - Rotary Platform, Double-Head Method), Martindale method (EN ISO 12947), or Wyzenbeek method (ASTM D4157). These standards outline the test procedures, equipment requirements, and evaluation criteria for assessing the abrasion resistance of fabrics and compare the results against set parameters.
6. Test Procedure:
- During the abrasion resistance test, the test fabric and the fabric being evaluated are subjected to controlled rubbing or abrasion under specific conditions, typically using a testing machine. The number of cycles or duration of the test is measured, and the fabric's surface appearance, pilling, or loss of weight is evaluated.
Abrasion resistance test fabrics play a crucial role in the textile industry as a reference material for evaluating the durability, quality, and performance of fabrics. By subjecting fabrics to standardized abrasion tests, manufacturers can assess the suitability of their materials for various applications and ensure that they meet the specific performance requirements of the end-users.