ASTM E84 and ASTM E162 are both fire test standards developed by ASTM International, but they assess different aspects of fire performance. Here are the key differences between the two standards:
1. ASTM E84 - Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials (often referred to as the "Steiner Tunnel Test"): This test method evaluates the surface burning characteristics of building materials, including their flame spread index (FSI) and smoke-developed index (SDI). It measures how quickly flames spread across the surface of a material and the amount of smoke generated during the test. The test involves subjecting the material to a controlled flame exposure in a test chamber and observing its behavior. The results are expressed as numerical values for FSI and SDI, which indicate the material's relative fire performance compared to standard reference materials.
1. ASTM E162 - Standard Test Method for Surface Flammability of Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source (often referred to as the "Radiant Panel Test"): This test method evaluates the surface flammability of materials by exposing them to a radiant heat source. It measures the time it takes for the material to ignite and the rate of flame spread across its surface. The test assesses the material's ignitability, heat release rate, and smoke generation characteristics. The results are typically reported as the time to ignition and the flame spread index.
In summary, ASTM E84 focuses on the surface burning characteristics and smoke development of building materials, while ASTM E162 assesses the surface flammability and flame spread characteristics using radiant heat exposure. Both standards provide valuable information about the fire performance of materials but evaluate different aspects of their behavior and response to fire.