Crockfastness testing is a method used to evaluate the colorfastness of fabrics, textiles, prints and other materials to rubbed or rubbed conditions. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has developed a series of crockfastness test methods for different types of materials and applications. Below is a general overview of ISO's common methods for evaluating crockfastness:
## ISO 105-X12: Dry friction method
Principle: This method uses a grinding head with a standardized geometry to evaluate the color fastness of the material by mechanical rubbing. For testing, the abrasive head is placed on the sample surface and a standardized wiping motion is applied.
1. Sample preparation: Cut the sample and make sure it is prepared so that it can be securely fixed on the test platform.
2. Abrasive head placement: Place the standardized geometry of the abraded heads on the sample, making sure that they are not in contact with each other.
3. Apply force and friction: Activate the friction device and apply a standardized force and friction motion to make the grinding head rub against the sample.
4. Repeat the test: Repeat the test as needed, usually multiple times to obtain reliable results.
Result evaluation: According to whether color transfer or damage occurs during the rubbing process, and the degree of transfer, the color fastness of the material is evaluated. Results are usually expressed using a scoring scale such as 1 to 5, where 5 indicates no color transfer and 1 indicates severe color transfer.
## ISO 105-D02: Wet friction method
Principle: The wet rubbing method evaluates the color fastness of a material under wet conditions, similar to the dry rubbing method, but water or other liquids are added to the test.
1. Sample preparation: Prepare the sample and make sure it is thoroughly wetted.
2. Abrasive head placement and wetting: Place the abrading head on the sample and wet it.
3. Applying force and friction: Activate the friction device and apply a standardized force and friction motion to wet the abrasive head on the sample.
4. Result Evaluation: Evaluate the degree of color transfer and damage, using a scoring scale to indicate the result.
## ISO 105-X16: Roller method
Principle: The roller method simulates the behavior of a material under frictional conditions by placing a sample in a frictional setup together with a set of standardized rollers.
1. Sample and roller preparation: Place the sample in the rubbing device together with the standardizing rollers.
2. Apply force and friction: Activate the unit and apply a standardized force to rub the roller against the sample.
3. Repeat the test: Repeat the test as needed, usually multiple times.
Result Evaluation: The color fastness of the material is evaluated, and the result is graded according to the degree of color transfer and damage.
These are some of the common methods used by ISO to assess crockfastness. Depending on the specific material and application, other ISO standard methods may be available. Make sure you follow the relevant ISO standards and guidelines when performing your tests to ensure accurate and reliable test results.